[Before 10,000 BCE]
Inventions Search Results
Years : 10,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE
39 Items listed
|dug out logs
|in modern Iraq
|Made of stone and fired through wooden tubes
|Use of Copper
|Domestication of Sheep, Goat
|first use of milk
|Jericho (modern Palestine)
|Wheat, Pea, Olive Cultivation
|Domestication of Pig
|Rice and Millet Cultivation
|in Catal Huyuk (modern Turkey)
|also called Eggplant
|Domestication of Cattle
|Domestication of Chicken
|in Harappa (modern Punjabi Pakistan)
|Sesame, Barley Cultivation
|Mohenjo Daro in modern Pakistan
|Sugar Cane Cultivation
|power from animals
|modern Israel, Lebanon
|in Samarra (modern Iraq)
|Domestication of Donkey, Cat
|cats for pest control
|storage of excess food
|Metal Smelting, Casting
|the first zigurats by the Eridu (modern Iraq)
|Chili, Avocado Cultivation
|floor slabs for huts in Central Europe
|City States and Nations
Egypt is the oldest continuously existing nation
|pipes made of bone, stringed harp
|near Almaty, modern Kazakhstan
|by the Sumerians
|Domestication of Horse
|Ox Drawn Plough
Two key developments were the building of fixed settlements and the cultivation of certain plants for food. This changed the entire way of life of humans. Fixed settlement and regular food supplies meant that there was more leisure time. Humans could think and specialise. Not everyone had to produce food. Farming could give a food surplus. Some individuals could develop other skills (like making pottery) which they could exchange for food.
The use of fire allowed stone to be replaced by metal. Metals were first extracted from ores over a domestic fire. Metal was easier to mold into required shapes and was stronger. It could also be used for glittering ornamentation.
The first chemists brewed coffee and wine.
The domestication of large animals (the beasts of burden) gave human beings enormous power in agriculture, transport and warfare.
Around 4500 BCE, human settlements began to band together into cities and states. Civilisation had begun. This first happened in Mesopotamia. This is a Greek word meaning "between the rivers". The rivers are the Euphrates and Tigris in the area covering modern day Iraq and also stretching to Syria, western Iran and eastern Turkey. This area is known as "The Cradle of Civilisation".
Other early civilisations also began close to rivers. The little known cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley (along the River Indus and its tributaries in modern day Pakistan). The various settlements along the two main waterways in central China: the Yellow River and Yangtse River. The extensive civilisation along the River Nile (Egypt). Of the countries that exist in the modern world, Egypt has been in existence for the longest period followed by China.
The creation of a social hierarchy, lead to some individuals becoming leaders and priests. The first kings appeared and religion was formalised. Circumcision was being practiced c4000 BCE in Egypt and Greece. The oldest rock-cut tombs date from 4000 BCE (Malta).
The first settlers reached the British Isles c4000 BCE. They worshipped at circular structures called henges.
|Asiatic Muflon Sheep
|Cow (Ox, Cattle)
|Wild Asiatic Horse
|Wild Arabian Camel
|Wild Central Asian Camel
|African Wild Ass
|Himalayan Wild Yak
These are the beasts of burden that have increased the power available to humans. Power to move things, power to cultivate larger areas of land, power and mobility in war, power to have abundant meat available.
Of the 200 or so large animals in the world, only the above 14 have ever been domesticated in all of human history. Many small animals have been domesticated (for example, dog, cat, and guinea pig). These smaller animals help humans in a number of ways (protection, pest control, pets) but the large animals give humans power. Their domestication was therefore a key step in the development of humans.
Many factors must combine together for an animal to be capable of being domesticated. Even if a single factor is missing, domestication will not occur. Animals can be caught in the wild and tamed. But only if they can be bred and changed are they considered to be domesticated. Cheetah and elephant are two animals that can be tamed but have never been domesticated.
These are the factors that will allow an animal to be domesticated and all must be present:
The following table looks at the geography of large animal domestication:
From this table, it is clear that Eurasia is blessed with the overwhelming majority of domesticated large animals. The power that this has given Eurasia has led to this continent becoming the world's most powerful.
Eurasia also has the geographical advantage that it spreads East-West. This means that climate zones, being mainly dependent on latitude, vary little along the continent. Plants domesticated in one area can be made to grow along the continent in the same climatic zone. Africa and the Americas, on the other hand, spread North-South through varying climatic zones. This acts as a barrier to the spread of plant domestication. This barrier also deters the spread of people as well as ideas. Any barrier to the spread of ideas slows down the development of knowledge and inventions.