Pottery : 7900 BCE : China

Inventions Search Results

Years : 10,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE

39 Items listed

Generated : 24th February 2024

[Before 10,000 BCE][4000 BCE to 3000 BCE]


When
Invention
Place
Notes
10,000 BCE BoatsPacific dug out logs
9000 BCE Fixed SettlementsMesopotamia in modern Iraq
9000 BCE HarpoonPolar Made of stone and fired through wooden tubes
9000 BCE Use of CopperMesopotamia  
8500 BCE Domestication of Sheep, GoatMesopotamia first use of milk
8500 BCE Walled TownMiddle East Jericho (modern Palestine)
8500 BCE Wheat, Pea, Olive CultivationMesopotamia  
7900 BCE PotteryChina  
7500 BCE Domestication of PigChina  
7500 BCE Rice and Millet CultivationChina Yangtze Delta
7500 BCE Terraced RoofsMiddle East in Catal Huyuk (modern Turkey)
7000 BCE Aubergine CultivationIndus Valley also called Eggplant
7000 BCE Banana CultivationNew Guinea  
7000 BCE CoffeeEthiopia date uncertain
7000 BCE Domestication of CattleIndus Valley cow, ox
7000 BCE Domestication of ChickenIndus Valley in Harappa (modern Punjabi Pakistan)
7000 BCE Sesame, Barley CultivationIndus Valley Mohenjo Daro in modern Pakistan
7000 BCE Sugar Cane CultivationNew Guinea  
7000 BCE The YokeMesopotamia power from animals
6500 BCE WeavingMiddle East modern Israel, Lebanon
6200 BCE Funerary ObjectsMesopotamia in Samarra (modern Iraq)
6000 BCE Domestication of Donkey, CatEgypt cats for pest control
6000 BCE Fig CultivationEgypt  
6000 BCE GranaryIndus Valley storage of excess food
6000 BCE Metal Smelting, CastingMiddle East  
5400 BCE Alcohol (Wine)Mesopotamia  
5300 BCE Monumental BuildingsMesopotamia the first zigurats by the Eridu (modern Iraq)
5000 BCE Chili, Avocado CultivationCentral America  
5000 BCE ConcreteEurope floor slabs for huts in Central Europe
5000 BCE Scales, BalanceEgypt for weighing
4500 BCE City States and NationsMesopotamia
Indus Valley
Egypt
China
civilization
Egypt is the oldest continuously existing nation
4500 BCE MetalworkEgypt  
4500 BCE Musical InstrumentsEurope, Mesopotamia pipes made of bone, stringed harp
4000 BCE Apple CultivationCentral Asia near Almaty, modern Kazakhstan
4000 BCE ArithmaticMesopotamia by the Sumerians
4000 BCE BridgesAfrica  
4000 BCE Cosmetics, FragrancesEgypt  
4000 BCE Domestication of HorseEurope modern Ukraine
4000 BCE Ox Drawn PloughMesopotamia improved agriculture

© 2024, KryssTal

[Before 10,000 BCE][4000 BCE to 3000 BCE]


Key Moments

Early humans had been nomadic, following herds and roaming to new areas to gather food. They lived in family groups where every member had to contribute to acquiring food.

Two key developments were the building of fixed settlements and the cultivation of certain plants for food. This changed the entire way of life of humans. Fixed settlement and regular food supplies meant that there was more leisure time. Humans could think and specialise. Not everyone had to produce food. Farming could give a food surplus. Some individuals could develop other skills (like making pottery) which they could exchange for food.

The use of fire allowed stone to be replaced by metal. Metals were first extracted from ores over a domestic fire. Metal was easier to mold into required shapes and was stronger. It could also be used for glittering ornamentation.

The first chemists brewed coffee and wine.

The domestication of large animals (the beasts of burden) gave human beings enormous power in agriculture, transport and warfare.

Around 4500 BCE, human settlements began to band together into cities and states. Civilisation had begun. This first happened in Mesopotamia. This is a Greek word meaning "between the rivers". The rivers are the Euphrates and Tigris in the area covering modern day Iraq and also stretching to Syria, western Iran and eastern Turkey. This area is known as "The Cradle of Civilisation".

Other early civilisations also began close to rivers. The little known cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley (along the River Indus and its tributaries in modern day Pakistan). The various settlements along the two main waterways in central China: the Yellow River and Yangtse River. The extensive civilisation along the River Nile (Egypt). Of the countries that exist in the modern world, Egypt has been in existence for the longest period followed by China.

The creation of a social hierarchy, lead to some individuals becoming leaders and priests. The first kings appeared and religion was formalised. Circumcision was being practiced c4000 BCE in Egypt and Greece. The oldest rock-cut tombs date from 4000 BCE (Malta).

The first settlers reached the British Isles c4000 BCE. They worshipped at circular structures called henges.


Large Animal Domestication

Animal Ancestor
SheepAsiatic Muflon Sheep
GoatBezoar Goat
Cow (Ox, Cattle)  Aurochs
PigWild Boar
HorseWild Asiatic Horse
Arabian CamelWild Arabian Camel
Bactrian CamelWild Central Asian Camel
Llama, AlpacaGuanaco (Andes)
DonkeyAfrican Wild Ass
ReindeerSiberian Reindeer
Water BuffaloAsian Buffalo
YakHimalayan Wild Yak
Bali CattleBanteng
MithanGaur

These are the beasts of burden that have increased the power available to humans. Power to move things, power to cultivate larger areas of land, power and mobility in war, power to have abundant meat available.

Of the 200 or so large animals in the world, only the above 14 have ever been domesticated in all of human history. Many small animals have been domesticated (for example, dog, cat, and guinea pig). These smaller animals help humans in a number of ways (protection, pest control, pets) but the large animals give humans power. Their domestication was therefore a key step in the development of humans.

Many factors must combine together for an animal to be capable of being domesticated. Even if a single factor is missing, domestication will not occur. Animals can be caught in the wild and tamed. But only if they can be bred and changed are they considered to be domesticated. Cheetah and elephant are two animals that can be tamed but have never been domesticated.

These are the factors that will allow an animal to be domesticated and all must be present:

The following table looks at the geography of large animal domestication:

Region Large
Animals
Domesticated
Animals
Eurasia7213
Sub-Saharan Africa510
The Americas241
Australia10

From this table, it is clear that Eurasia is blessed with the overwhelming majority of domesticated large animals. The power that this has given Eurasia has led to this continent becoming the world's most powerful.

Eurasia also has the geographical advantage that it spreads East-West. This means that climate zones, being mainly dependent on latitude, vary little along the continent. Plants domesticated in one area can be made to grow along the continent in the same climatic zone. Africa and the Americas, on the other hand, spread North-South through varying climatic zones. This acts as a barrier to the spread of plant domestication. This barrier also deters the spread of people as well as ideas. Any barrier to the spread of ideas slows down the development of knowledge and inventions.


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KryssTal Related Pages

The chemistry of carbon compounds.

Believe it or not, words from the Akkadian language of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires of Mesopotamia are still used in English today.

These are words from the Egyptian language of Pharoaic Egypt.


[Before 10,000 BCE][4000 BCE to 3000 BCE]

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