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Language Families

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Generated : 17th June 2024



Chinese and Tibetan are NEVER related to each other!

Sino-Tibetan DOES NOT exist! Sino is NOT from LATIN, it's an approximate of the Arabic word for "Chinese", but Sinologist do NOT study Chinese, they distort the Chinese language and its various dialects, so they are really studying SIN!

The word SINITIC DOES NOT EXIST and is a made up bullshit word!

BUT from a Chinese or rather a Tibetan perspective these two languages and their various dialects ARE NEVER related to each other.

Thai, Lao and Cambodian are related, but might or might not be related to Tibetan, even though they all based their written languages from some form of Indian script.

Tibetan, Chinese, Thai, Cambodian, Lao, etc... might all be monosyllabic but Tibetan, Thai, Cambodian, Lao, etc... are NOT related to Chinese in any shape or form!

1. Sino-Tibetan and replace it with their different languages: Chinese and Tibetan, and NOT as one term?

2. Sinitic

3. Sinologist

Languages that seem related ARE NEVER always related!

These are all made up terms by EUROPEANS, who are almost always incorrect concerning anything ASIAN!

Please just delete all these nonsensical terms from your website and find other suitable substitutes or just rephrase it using just ENGLISH words.

I am Chinese and I am telling you that all these terms are made up and do not make any sense!

I have seen your website and am respectable of how you are able to put all these languages together.

Thanks. Bryan




You might not be the person taking care of the content of the website, but at least you could forward this e-mail to the correct place.

I've been reading the explanations and examples about Altaic languages, and I would like to comment on a few things as a native speaker of Turkish. The most important one would be a correction that the word for water in Turkish ("su") is perfectly regular. There are only two noun-like words I can come up with that are irregular: "ben" and "sen" ("I" and "you"). I think there should be a few more, I'm not sure though.

There are a few minor details that I could add; the example you have given as "for the house" - "ev-icin" is generally correct, but those are two separate words, whereas the other examples consist of suffixes as mentioned on the website.

As an additional information you could write that Turkish also has a lot of words from Persian, besides Arabic, and for a regular native speaker it's trivial to notice that a word in Turkish comes from either of these languages, but usually only the ones specialized in this area know from which one it is.

Another thing mentioned on your website is that the country names in Finnish are difficult to recognize. I speak this language fluently, and know that at least some countries (Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Russia and Germany) have completely unrelated names compared to the other languages I have a clue of, but I couldn't find any information about where these words are coming or why this is so. I'd appreciate if you could direct me to some source.

Thank you, Cem


Lindsey Wilson


I want to start by saying that I find your site very informative and a good resources for finding related languages at a glance.

I had noticed that you say things like Gypsy is a derogatory term and Roma should be used instead, and the same for Lapps vs. Sami. But I also noticed that you include the language Miao, instead of calling it Hmong. You don't say anything about this language or its speakers in the text. I know from a very interesting book I have read (The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman) that Miao was derogatory term that the Chinese had for these people, that referred to them sounding like cats. In other texts, when they talk about this branch of languages I usually see it referred to as 'Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao)'. You might consider including this bit of information on your site. (It is under the Sino-Tibetan languages.)

Thank you.

KryssTal Reply: Thank you for your kind and interesting comments. I have made the changes you suggested.


Kugler Viktor

Hi, Your website is great! :)

Your write that some linguists "link the Uralic and Altaic families together". As a Hungarian who is learning Turkish i would completely join this opinion. Everything you write in general about Altaic languages + your Turkish examples are all true about Uralic / Hungarian as well (vowel harmony, suffixes, agglutination).

This is not a correction to your site, rather something i found interesting and you may find it interesting as well.

KryssTal Reply: Thank you for your kind comments. I went to Budapest many years ago but I made no progress with your fascinating language. I must do some more studying.


James Haver

First of all thank you for your site I find it very helpful and enjoyable.

I don't know if you are aware of this but I hear the Existing Baltic Languages (Lithuanian and Latvian) are very important for a Linguistical study of the Indo-European language family because many sources say they are very old languages (Not exactly sure what they mean by that, maybe been around a while and unchanged but I am not sure) and that many linguistics take the time to learn Lithuanian (which is argued to be the elder language than Latvian). They find many cognates between LIthuanian and Sanskrit.

Well I really don't know that much about it and I have only done internet research so I could be wrong, but I thought I would inform you because This field interests you. Thanks for your time.

KryssTal Reply: Thank you for your kind comments.

Everything in your email is correct. Lithuanian is little changed and has close similarities with Sanskrit. Well done!


Antti Valpas


I found your website accidentally. Looks great, but I would like to add one important group of Uralic languages to the table of Finnish Branch. Its called Karelian, which is generally speaking closely related to Finnish and Estonian languages but is always counted as own separate language. It does even have its own sub-dialects and most important ones are Karelian and Livvik. Veps can be also counted into that group. Veps is strongly separated from Karelian and Livvik dialects but it is spoken in the area of Karelian languages, so therefore most people does count them as Karelians (what they are culturally and partly linguistically).

So these two major dialects belongs to Karelian language(s). Here is also few other smaller dialect groups but those are usually counted directly into one of these dialects because of its similarity to the "host" dialect.

I suggest that you add Karelian language too to that table, so it is not forgotting any most important Finnish branches. :) Here is link to one of the websites, where is told more about Karelian languages, if you found it useful:

KryssTal Reply: Thank you, Antti.

I have added your information to my web site.


Mircea Stefanescu

Dear Sir,

Congratulation for your informative site, which offers fast and easy a lot of valuable data.

I am sorry, but I have serious reserves about considering Japanese Language as an Altaic language anymore. I have been for two years in Japan, I have strained to learn Japanese, even if not very successful, therefore I have a piece of right to comment. A practical reason to doubt about classifying Japanese in Altaic family language is that Koreans find as difficult as other foreiugns to learn Japanese. Another reason is historic - first population was Ainu (too few to matter on long-term), then a Malayan population (which seems to be majority, therefore they have many cultural affinities with these populations), and the Korean and Chinese immigration was in a limited number (also they had a major cultural influence).

The language has now four major sources for vocabulary - Malayan (important, well-documented), Korean, Chinese (borrowing for many diallects on more periods) and English (especially after 1945, when they received some cultural influence from Americans). However, no speaker of these languages is at ease when learning Japanese. It seems rather that the effect of the previously-described mixing was a drifting of the language from his original family, which seemed to be Malayo-Polynesian.

Anyway, the language is not the only cultural aspect where Japanese revealed a preference for high diversity of current-use assets. Doomo sumimasen, takusan no koto no Nihon wa muzukashii desu, yo ! (Japanese - Sorry, many Japanese issues are complicated, I am sure about it). Even their well-reputed specialists have debates even about several often used constructions, what to say anymore about other aspects. Moreover, they have a strong tendency even now to display an official point of view rather differeny from the real one.


Linda Grannas

Altaic - I would add Finnish / Estonian to this list - I speak Finnish, have studied Korean, travelled Japan & can give examples of similar agglutination to those you give in the brief summary for Turkish.

e.g. to say going from Melbourne to Sydney (I am in Australia)

Finnish - Melbournesta" Sydneyiin (umlaut on a)
Korean Melbourneso Sydney kaji

The Enclopaedia Britannica does have soem writing on this. I do want to learn more about these linguistic links, alas I'm an engineer working on workplace safety - plenty to do & so little time, thanks for the web page, it is how I'll need to do my research, not go the time to trot to linguistics libraries - maybe when I retire.

KryssTal Reply: Thank you for your kind comments.

Uralic - comment on Suomi

the word swamp approximates the meaning of Suomi - a very marshy land for hundreds of eyars, still known as the land of (can't remember how many) lakes. I believe that in olden days, Finland was known in England as Fenland (also implying low flat marshy land) - nothing like the Monty Python song Finland X3.

KryssTal Reply: Ahh, a Monty Python fan. I have their musical CD.


Pejman Akbarzadeh

Dear Krysstal Webmaster,

I would like to congratulate you for your interesting and useful web site, but I have seen the word FARSI instead of PERSIAN for the official language of our country in your English texts.

I am sorry that this e-mail is long but if the information in your website are important for yourself, please take time and read it and please don't take ir personally. I'd like to point out: FARSI (which is originally PARSI) is the native name of our language and PERSIAN is its English (International) equivalent. As the native name of German language is 'Deutsch', but we never use 'Deutsch' in place of 'German' in English; or native term of Greek Language is 'Elinika' and always in English we say 'Greek' language not 'Elinika' language.

If you notice to the term of Dictionaries that have been written by several great Persian scholares (eg. Prof. Moein, Prof. Aryanpour, Prof. Baateni, etc.) The title of all of them are "ENGLISH-PERSIAN DICTIONARY" not "ENGLISH-FARSI DICTIONARY". Meanwhile the official organization "Farhangestaan" (the Academy of the Persian language and literature in Tehran) in an announcement has rejected the use of the word 'Farsi' in place of 'Persian' in English (for several reasons that If you wish I can send it).

The adjective PERSIAN (or its variants; persane, persisch, etc.) has special meaning in the Western languages. According to Dr. Hossein Samiee (visiting linguistic professor of Emory University in Atlanta): "PERSIAN, alongside the name of a language, maybe used, as an adjective, for the other aspects of our history and culture. For example, we can speak about 'Persian Literature', 'Persian Gulf', 'Persian Carpet', 'Persian Food', this way, 'Persian' maybe a common concept and function as a link between all aspects of Iranian [Persian] life, including language.

'Farsi' does not have such a characteristic. If you want to have more information please do not hesitate to contact me. If possible, please revise in your English texts/web site and please use the correct English name of our language; PERSIAN ,not FARSI.

Thank you so much for your attention and take care. Best regards.


Bagher R. Harand
Persian Gulf Task Force, New York Chapter

Dear Kryss Tal:

Looking at your beautiful website, makes me think there is a NEW language for our mother land called Farsi, of course Farsi is our native language. The translation to English is Persian. And it is well known internationally as Persian. I sold Persian Rugs, for four decades, Not Farsi Rugs, I listen to Persian Poem & Persian Music, for six decades, not Farsi Poem or Farsi Music, I eat Persian Food for over six decades, not Farsi Food, I have Persian Culture, not Farsi Culture. There is Persian Gulf, not Farsi Gulf.

Please correct your website to an educated one, not an abuser of Persian language.

By the way my spell check doesn't recognize Farsi it is PERSIAN.

Yours Truly.

KryssTal Reply: Thank you for your kind comments.

I tend to use Farsi for the current language (spoken in most of Iran and the west of Afghanistan) and Persian for the ancient language spoken by people like Darius. From Persian has evolved Farsi, Kurdish, Pashto, Ossetian, Tadzhik and Baluchi.

It's interesting that your mother country changed its name FROM Persia TO Iran: so should the language be called Iranian and should those rugs be Iranian rugs?

In a similar way, Greek culture is referred to as Hellenic culture even though the country name is Greece. The speakers of Latin were Romans (again difference in language name and people name). The Egyptians speak Arabic: Egyptian is the ancient language of the Pharoes.

I notice that you live in the USA. In England, there is far less assimilation and more knowledge about the wider world. The word "Farsi" is used more for the language. People tend not to change their names here and keep their original names. I have always known the language as Farsi. In fact the words Persia and Farsi are from the same root. I am not trying to insult anyone or the language but feel that Farsi describes the language better than the ambiguous word "Persian". I do mention where Farsi is spoken to make it clear.

I hope this explains my thought processes behind my terminology. Again, thank you for taking the time to write.

Thank you for your response.

The language that the old Persians / Iranians used to communicate is called Old Persian that you refer to as Persian. In Persian, which is my mother tong, it is also referred to as Old Persian (Farsi-e ghadim). Your definitions of Persian are very new. At least I never heard of them until now. Dari and Tajik and etc., as you said, are derivatives of the Old Persian language and may be referred to as Dari Persian and Tajik Persian in English as they are referred to in Persian as "Farsi-e Dari" and "Farsi-e Tajik" respectively. Similar to French Canadian which has many differences from the French language spoken in France today. But, it is also call French or French Canadian. Nobody changed the French part of it.

The name Farsi or Parsi has always been called the same in Persian for as long as every body remembers. However, its translation in English is Persian and it has always been Persian. There are Old Persian, middle Persian (Pahlavi), and new Persian which the latter is the first language spoken in Iran today. The name Persian never changed to Farsi. As you know after the 1979 Iranian revolution, many Iranians immigrated to other countries. Some of whom were simply ignorant or did not care and wrongfully introduced their language "Farsi". There are also other languages that have different names in different languages. One example is French. It is called Francais in French. Nevertheless, it is called French in English. It is wrong to call it Francais in English.

Iranian language and history masters also call it Persian. Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of the Encyclopedia Iranica has stated this important fact in his Encyclopedia. I have attached a few papers and links for you to review. I hope these documents are informative enough for you to accept our logic at the Persian Gulf Task Force.

The last point Id like to make is Iran has always been called Iran in Iran. Only the name changed from Persia to Iran in English.

Best regards.

© 2024, KryssTal