Independence of India and Pakistan
India becomes an independent country with an democratic government. The old UK colony is divided into a Hindu dominated
India and a Muslim dominated Pakistan. Over 500,000 people die during the partition.
The Hindu ruler of predominantly Muslim Kashmir decides to join India without the consent of his people. This
leads to tensions with Pakistan which will sour relations between the two countries for generations. After a
brief war, over 65% of
Kashmir ends up under Indian control while the rest becomes part of Pakistan.
The United Nations recommends a plebiscite (referendum) by the Kashmiris to determine their future. This is
India makes its part of Kashmir a full state against the wishes of the majority of the Kashmiri
India attempts to make Hindi (a north Indian language) the national language of all India.
Tamils in the south protest and English becomes an official language.
Opposition leaders are arrested in India. A miliary coup occurs in Bangaldesh, a country trading with India.
Hindus destroy a mosque in Ayodhya (India) leading to riots
in which 1,200 are killed.
India and Kashmir
The Chief Minister of Kashmir (India), Dr. Farooq Abdullah
admits in an interview that over 66,158 people have died in Kashmir since 1989 at the hands of Indian security
forces. Of these, 59,170 were shot, 585 were burnt alive, 2,235 were tortured to death, 568 were drowned in the River
Jhelum and over 3,600 people were killed crossing into Pakistan.
Since 1989, over 70,600 people remain in prison without trial. The number of displaced persons exceeds 100,000.
India and Kashmir
During the year, Indian security forces in Kashmir kill 9,972 people. Victims include political activists and journalists:
- Kashmiri human rights activist Jalil Andrabi is abducted and found dead 19 days later in the
Jhelum River near Srinagar.
- Shabbir Siddiqi, a political activist, is killed with 20 others when Indian security forces open fire in the
vicinity of the Hazratbal Shrine.
- Sheikh Ghulam Rasul, a human rights activist and journalist, is killed after 22 days captivity; his body is
found in the Jhelum River at Pampore.
- Ghulam Murtaza Kashmiri, a cameraman working for Kashmir Press
International is killed in Kupwara.
- Mushtaq Ahmed Line, the editor of the newspaper Wahdat-e-Milli is
murdered in Srinagar.
India had taken over 65% of Kashmir against the wishes of the population in 1947. It has consistently denied the people a vote on
the future of the state.
India in Kashmir
India threatens Pakistan over Kashmir.
Kashmir had been incorporated into India from 1948 even though the majority of its population is
Muslim. The region's ruler was a Hindu and chose to align his kingdom with
India against the wishes of the population. A promised plebiscite (referendum) has never been allowed by India.
India justifies its actions by labelling them as a "War Against Terrorism" and stating "If the USA can come here and
attack Afghanistan, why cannot we attack terrorism in Pakistan?"
India and Kashmir
The government of India admits that 144 people have died in the custody of the country's security forces in
Kashmir since 1989. A provincial minister, Abdul Rahman Veeri, also admitted
that 3931 people have gone missing during the same period.
Human Rights Watch publishes a report about the failure of India to convict the ringleaders
responsible for the deaths of over 2000 people in the state of Gujerat in 2002.
In the Palakkad region of India, the USA company Coca Cola
manufactures 85 lorryloads of drinks per day. Each lorry contains over 13,000 bottles. The water is taken from deep wells which have caused problems
for the local inhabitants. Each day the company uses enough water to meet the minimum requirements for 20,000 people. Local farmers who could pump
water onto their fields for 12 hours a day now find that the water dries up after 30 minutes.
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